What is meant by “hand-pollination”? The reproductive systems of Solanaceae (tomato family) and Cucurbitaceae (Cucumber family) crops are easy to manipulate by hand, because of their conspicuous flower parts. In order to make hybrid varieties, pollen from the male breeding line is crossed onto emasculated flowers of the female breeding line. Emasculated in this case means the flowers are examined and only flowers where there are no male sexual parts are used. Once it is determined that the flowers have no male sexual parts, the female sexual parts of the flower on the female line is pollinated with pollen obtained from flowers on the male line. The product of these crosses is a “hybrid” where half of the genes come from the male line and half from the female line. When the two hybrid parents are genetically stable and inbred, the off-spring of this combination is uniform, i.e., all seeds have the identical genetic composition.